Thus, by choosing a suitable type of memory, designers can improve the performance of the pipelined data path. The following text describes two styles of register renaming, which are distinguished by the circuit which holds the data ready for an execution unit.
This file returns a tag and a ready bit. In the renaming stage, every architectural register referenced for read or write is looked up in an architecturally-indexed remap file. RAM indexed by logical register number. One particular processor which implements this ISA, the Alphahas 80 integer and 72 floating-point physical registers.
In the tag-indexed register file style, there is one large register file for data values, containing one register for every tag. In fact, there are even more locations than that, but those extra locations are not germane to the register renaming operation.
For example, if the machine has 80 physical registers, then it would use 7 bit tags.
Reorder buffers can be data-less or data-ful. In the following example, instruction 2 anti-depends on instruction 3 — the ordering of these instructions cannot be changed, nor write after read dependency they be executed in parallel possibly changing the instruction orderingas this would affect the final value of A.
Queues that collapse holes have simpler priority encoding, but require simple but large circuitry to advance instructions through the queue.
Write after read dependency instructions are executed, the tags for their results are broadcast, and the issue queues match these tags against the tags of their non-ready source operands.
In this style, when an instruction is issued to an execution unit, the register file entries corresponding to the issue queue entry are read and forwarded to the execution unit.
Exceptions and branch mispredictions, recognised at graduation, cause the architectural file to be copied to the future file, and all registers marked as ready in the rename file. Instead of delaying the write until all reads are completed, two copies of the location can be maintained, the old value and the new value.
There are, on an Alpha chip, 80 physically separate locations which can store the results of integer operations, and 72 locations which can store the results of floating point operations.
A match means that the operand is ready. In many ways, the story of out-of-order microarchitecture has been how these CAMs have been progressively eliminated.
WAW dependencies are also known as output dependencies. Most modern machines do renaming by RAM indexing a map table with the logical register number. Pipelines for complex instruction sets that support autoincrement addressing and require operands to be read late in the pipeline could create a WAR hazards.
In the example below, there is an output dependency between instructions 3 and 1 — changing the ordering of instructions in this example will change the final value of A, thus these instructions cannot be executed in parallel.
Reservation stations also have better latency from instruction issue to execution, because each local register file is smaller than the large central file of the tag-indexed scheme.
In such an event, i2 adds 7 to the old value of register 1 6and so register 2 contains 13 instead, i. Other techniques[ edit ] Memory latency is another factor that designers must attend to, because the delay could reduce performance. Flow dependency[ edit ] A Flow dependency, also known as a data dependency or true dependency or read-after-write RAWoccurs when an instruction depends on the result of a previous instruction: Control hazards branch hazards [ edit ] To avoid control hazards microarchitectures can: It differs from a history buffer because the reorder buffer typically comes after the future file if it exists and before the architectural register file.
Allowing writes in different pipe stages introduces other problems, since two instructions can try to write during the same clock cycle. Many high performance CPUs have more physical registers than may be named directly in the instruction set, so they rename registers in hardware to achieve additional parallelism.
Keith Diefendorff insisted that ROBs have complex associative logic for many years. For read operands, this tag takes the place of the architectural register in the instruction.
The tag is non-ready if there is a queued instruction which will write to it that has not yet executed.
For instance, the Alpha ISA specifies 32 integer registers, each 64 bits wide, and 32 floating-point registers, each 64 bits wide.
There is usually no way to reconstruct the state of the future file for some instruction intermediate between decode and graduation, so there is usually no way to do early recovery from branch mispredictions.
Later revisions of the design starting with the R used a partially variable priority encoder to mitigate this problem. However, earlier machines used content-addressable memory CAM in the renamer. If we modified the DLX pipeline as in the above example and also read some operands late, such as the source value for a store instruction, a WAR hazard could occur.
While the general-purpose and floating-point registers are discussed the most, flag and status registers or even individual status bits are commonly renamed as well.RAW (read after write) - j tries to read a source before i writes it, so j incorrectly gets the old value.
This is the most common type of hazard and the kind that we use forwarding to overcome. WAW (write after write) - j tries to write an operand before it is written by i.
WAR: Write After Read write-after-read (WAR) = artificial (name) dependence add R1, R2, R3 sub R2, R4, R1 or R1, R6, R3 write-after-write (WAW) = artificial (name) dependence add R1,R2,R3 sub R2,R4,R1 or R1,R6,R3 • problem: reordering could leave wrong value in R1. this as “read after write” (RAW) while others describe it as “write after read” (WAR) — The RAW description describes the instruction sequence as it.
When the above instructions are executed in a pipelined processor, then data dependency condition will occur, which means that I 2 tries to read the data before I 1 writes it, therefore, I 2 incorrectly gets the old value from I 1.
WAR (Write-After-Read) § A reads from a location, B writes to the location, there fore B has a WAR dependency on A. Write-after-read (WAR) – a read from a register or memory location must return the last prior value written to that location, and not one written programmatically after the read.
This is a sort of false dependency that can be resolved by renaming.Download